“For some parents this is the most important
part of camp; that others see and appreciate the spirit of their
Lessons of camp resonate beyond summer
Whitecrow Village began its ninth summer in May 2005 with a four-day
training for new volunteers and interested community members. We
completed our summer schedule in September after a session for adults
living with FASD. In the months between we held two more volunteer/community
training sessions and a total of six camp sessions. We held the
camps in British Columbia, at sites near Port Hardy, Windermere
and near Lake Cowichan on Vancouver Island, and in Whitehorse in
the Yukon Territory.
As our sites have expanded, so has participation: 38 families registered
(with near equal numbers of birthparents and adoptive and foster
parents) 92 kids came to camp, and 41 volunteers attended training.
Volunteers included teachers, an infant development nurse, a developmental
pediatrician, captain of the Canadian Rugby team, high school students,
adults living with FASD, pre-med students, neuropsychology students,
community and family support workers, drug and alcohol counselors,
mental health counselors and community health representatives. Our
camp has indeed expanded from its small beginnings.
Branching out to other communities
Whitecrow Village was initially established as a camp at Francois
Lake, British Columbia, to give children with FASD a successful
summer camp experience. Enjoying the children’s success and
realizing that our program had the potential to address the greater
needs of families and, indeed, whole communities, we began in our
third year to include families and professionals. At the same time
we began to offer our staff training to all interested members of
the community, both professional and lay people. In 2002 we first
took our entire camp program away from home at Francois Lake to
Lake Cowichan on Vancouver Island. Now our program is available
to communities around the world.
We travel to different communities for several reasons. We want
to be accessible physically and financially to more families and
more professionals. We want communities to be able to take our basics
and tailor future programs to their own unique needs and culture.
We believe that academic and experiential, hands-on training are
necessary for meaningful understanding of FASD.
Whitecrow Village is now a concept rather than a single physical
location. We seek to create a context of respect and relationship
for all participants. Building on the work of many others, notably
Jan Lutke in British Columbia, and with the help of many teachers,
primarily Diane Malbin of FASCETS (Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Consultation,
Education and Training Services), and with the always willing guidance
of our participants living with FASD, we have developed a program
that takes into account the challenges and strengths of people with
FASD. By providing environmental support for the primary brain injury,
we allow children and adults living with FASD and their families
an opportunity to belong, to be appreciated and to contribute. We
guide families and professionals to establish a common language
and understanding that allows them to be successful in their common
Our groups range from 25 to 70 participants. Typically, half the
participants are children, and parents make up one-third of the
adults. Staff members for single sessions come as volunteers from
the community. Our current core Whitecrow Village staff includes
Beverly Zorn, Bruce Price, Kee Warner and several adults with FASD.
This year we missed Kellie Zorn and Kirk Lutke who were at work
and school over the summer. These two young adults were our first
core staff members with FASD, having progressed from campers and
presenters to camp leaders. Now most members of our team are adults
with FASD and we are beginning a junior leadership team.
We have worked in some of the most fractured communities. FASD
can be the issue that begins the healing. People come together to
address what seems to be a difficult but finite problem and find
threads leading into every aspect of society. Old hostilities and
misunderstandings, extreme poverty and decades of abuse and neglect
are deeply woven into daily life. Of course, major changes may not
occur in the two weeks that the community spends with us, but the
process can begin. When a community determines that they are ready,
together we can make a huge difference.
Providing fun and structure each day
The basic structure to our days at camp is one of the most important
components of our participants’ successes. Our daily schedule
has few variations throughout the session. The coffee and fruit
bowl are out by 5 or 6 AM for early risers. Families gradually wake,
prepare for the day and come to the dining hall. We have breakfast
together. Then the teams of kids gather and start off to their first
morning adventures, such as hiking, sports, or canoeing. The adults
grab one more coffee and head into the morning training session.
The teams come back to the dining hall for snack between their
two morning activities, unless they have gone on a longer trek.
We do have lunch all together. This year we had to tell the parents
in most groups that lunch was 15 minutes earlier than it really
was, in order to get them there on time. Otherwise the kids were
waiting for lunch while the adults finished just one more deep conversation.
After lunch we have a family rest time. This time of togetherness
and rest is a difficult time for some families. The caregivers are
so involved in the daily work with their families that they are
out of practice playing with their kids. We supply books and games
and by the end of the week, most families are enjoying this calm
Craft time is an afternoon activity that the kids’ teams
do together and parents are invited to join. It’s a rewarding
time as we watch grandmothers and teenage grandsons beading together
and preschoolers excitedly telling their stories as they paint and
glue the things they have collected on their morning hike. It’s
an opportunity to demonstrate that success has many forms.
One of the favorite projects is “google eyes,” which
was taught to us by an early childhood educator. The kids use cotton
puffs, feathers, construction paper, pipe cleaners and glue on stuffed
animal eyes to make fantastic little creatures. In one of our sessions
there was a man in his forties living with FASD whose life experiences
led him to refuse to participate in most activities. He reluctantly
went canoeing and hiking. He sat by as others participated. He watched
one afternoon as kids made google eyes, and that evening asked Bev
to show him how. He had not seemed to relate much to others at camp,
but he spent craft time over the next days making a google eye character
for each camp leader and some of the kids. As he gave each person
their character, he carefully explained that it must be hung just
so to watch over them and keep them safe.
After crafts and afternoon snack the next activity is swimming.
Families go together to the waterfront to help the lifeguard keep
the kids safe. Staff members station themselves in the water, each
with an eye on two or three specific kids. Sometimes at the beginning
of a session, one child will need the complete attention of a staff
person. It’s rewarding to watch that child relax and safely
join in after a day or two.
The time at the waterfront provides another opportunity for morning
session discussions among the adults to continue. Parents talk over
the pros and cons of Ritalin and Dexedrine, and we often hear, “what
is Risperdol anyway?” They talk about school experiences and
get help from parents whose older children have been to the same
school. They continue sharing the family stories that no family
without FASD could ever understand. They begin to laugh at the situations
that were weighing so heavily as they hear similar stories. All
the while they are watching as other adults interact with and enjoy
their children. For some parents this is the most important part
of camp; that others see and appreciate the spirit of their children.
Another important piece of the Whitecrow experience continues at
the waterfront. Our staff of adults living with FASD leads the teams
of volunteers working with the children’s groups. At the waterfront,
parents and other adults see the communication style of these camp
leaders and the ease with which the children understand what is
expected of them. Many of the parents are not aware which of our
staff have FASD. Later in the week when these leaders come to provide
part of the morning training, the parents at first find it hard
to believe that these highly skilled and effective leaders have
any disability. And then the parents begin to see the possibilities
for their own children.
Whitecrow provides opportunities for adults living with FASD to
make meaningful contributions to their communities. It also provides
the community an opportunity to learn how to support adults with
FASD. Watching our camp leaders foster confidence and competence
in their team is inspiring to all of us.
An example of change and growth in our young adult leaders was
evident this summer. “How’m I doing, Kee?” was
Ken’s most frequent question. Last year Ken had some behavior
issues, but this year was different: Ken was determined to be a
very good camp leader and succeeded beyond even his expectations.
One day he asked, “On a scale of one to ten, how am I doing
this year compared to last year?” “Twenty-five, Ken,”
was the immediate answer. This became very useful shorthand for
Ken and the team as a way to check in with each other. If someone
started to repeat an off-color comment, one of the team would say,
“That’ll take you down to a 12.” This gave us
a way to support each other and prevent impulsive mistakes without
“Circle time, Mom, come on, Dad,” is the call for the
formal close of the day. Gradually everyone gathers and we begin
to take turns talking and listening to each other. This circle time,
while sitting on the earth in the evening, being quiet or sharing
thoughts and feelings, brings a spiritual component to the day.
As people begin to feel safe, they speak from the heart. “It’s
okay to be me here,” is a common theme. The smaller children
sometimes roll about inside the safety of the group. But usually
there is one—often one of the more challenging younger campers—who
shines at circle time.
This year one of our shining examples was eight-year-old Annette.
She often didn’t seem to hear what was going on during the
day. She had very few conversations with the kids in her group,
and often argued with the leaders. But at circle time, Annette repeated
the whole day to the entire group. She thanked one leader for telling
a story on a long walk. She talked about swimming and hiking and
collecting feathers. Annette talked about God, and how she loved
everybody at camp. She talked about wishing her mom would be happy
more often. She talked about watching her grandmother laugh with
people, and how she likes that because she really loves Grandma.
She talked about how important it is that we all care about each
other and have a lot of fun. She talked about eating salad and macaroni
and cheese. Some evenings she rocked her small body back and forth
or walked quickly around and around the circle the whole time she
was talking. Other times she sat calmly and dignified and made careful
eye contact with each person.
Her grandmother was uncomfortable at first. It seemed to be inappropriate
that a child would talk so much at circle time. Other groups of
adults had not appreciated this granddaughter of hers. But as she
saw that people are listening and agreeing, she began to relax.
Others around the circle, children and adults, commented on what
Annette had said; that it was nice to be reminded to be grateful
to the Creator, that it does feel good to care about people, and
that they liked dinner also.
Helping families bloom
There are many other stories of growth and change at each camp.
One family tells how they signed up thinking they would learn how
to better to support their adopted son. After three days at camp,
they began to speak about how FASD affects much of their immediate
and extended family. They are now formulating plans for their whole
community to gain marketable FASD expertise. Whether this big project
is completed or not, they will certainly bring a greater understanding
to their family and community.
One mom had her three boys with her only for the time of camp.
Usually they were in foster care because they were considered to
be a danger to each other and to their mom. Mom said she likely,
very likely, has FASD herself. She was on a prescribed drug regime
that left her listless. Her support worker was at camp as well.
They began to understand and respect each other as human beings
doing their best with what they have. The boys saw and heard ways
of communicating with each other and with their mom that are effective
without being violent. They ate regular meals and didn’t have
to feel the highs and lows of being overly full and too hungry.
They saw other people enjoying their family, valuing their gifts
and skills. One evening at circle, one boy leaned over and kissed
his brother on the head. They’d had some arguments that day,
but nobody was the scapegoat anymore. One brother said, “I’ve
never been anyplace where the other kids didn’t make fun of
The first time this mom saw the oldest son playing someone’s
guitar, she was very worried. “He’ll break it when he
gets mad,” she said. He played it all week without a scratch,
without being angry from a sense of failure. After a day, his mom
relaxed and just beamed at him. Two months later, she was beaming
again as she told me the boys are at home with her. The support
worker helped her get suitable housing. She was no longer feeling
so stressed, and was starting to get off some of the drugs she had
Our youngest camper this year was just a few weeks old. He came
with mom, siblings and cousins. He doesn’t have FASD—a
real story of success in this community. His family has come to
camp twice in previous years.
For some, camp is the first time they have been treated with care
and respect. “Everybody understands me here, I don’t
get in trouble,” said Michael who was fifteen, and at camp
with his family for the first time. He frequently reminded camp
leaders that he was always to be supervised. Since he would hug
or punch those around him when he got excited, we asked Daniel,
a very tolerant kid of ten who has been at camp several years, to
stay between Michael and the smaller kids in activities. For Daniel
this request was no problem. He said to Michael, “hands to
yourself,” or “give me a high five,” in such a
matter of fact way that it was easy to follow his suggestions. Both
Daniel and Michael want to be junior camp leaders. “I want
to come to every camp,” said Michael.
Ending the day
Each day ends with younger campers off to bed while staff and
older campers play sports or cards. Sometimes parents get together
in the evenings and play board games and then we have to chase them
off to bed too. It’s just one week and nobody wants to miss
any of the strength and hope this week will bring to the rest of
his or her year.
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FASLink: Celebrating 10 Years Online
In the spring of 1995, a Manitoba mother contacted the Canadian
Centre for Substance Abuse and asked information specialist Carole
Julien if she could help her start a listserv on the Internet. "This
listserv, " she explained, "would be modeled after another
Internet group called "OurKids" in which families of children
with disabilities could support each other. Only this would be called
And with this, Mrs. Val Surbey of Winnipeg started the largest
listserv on the Internet for families and professionals dealing
with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders. From an initial group of
about ten people, FASLink has grown to a listserv that serves 300-500
people and professionals. It provides support but over the years
has also provided a host of other services; more importantly, it
also allows sharing of valuable personal experiences.
The initial group lived in different parts of North America and
represented a wide variety of circumstances. Sally Caldwell had
just become famous as Anton's mother in Fantastic Anton Succeeds
by Judith Kleinfeld; Daniel Dubovsky, a single father of a son with
FAS, was an instructor in psychiatry at Allegheny University, training
people working in mental health and substance abuse treatment, and
he had a great interest in and knowledge of pharmaceuticals; Louise
Morin, a mother from Quebec, was anxious to provide information
to the French-speaking peoples of Canada; Bruce Ritchie (present
moderator of FASLink), was a parent and a computer systems expert;
Dr. Robert Schacht was working with the American Indian Rehabilitation
Center at the University of Northern Arizona; Joan and Bill Smith
were adoptive parents who later started the OlderFAS listserv; and
Donna Wheway was from the British Columbia FAS Support Network.
Other founding members included "Y," a birth mother; "P,"
an adoptive mother of two boys; and Val and her friend Bev, also
an adoptive mother. There might have been others "lurking,"
but these people formed the initial core of FASLink and had a vast
array of knowledge to share.
Over the years, people have joined and dropped FASLink, depending
on how busy or difficult their lives have become. We may have started
out as a support group but we have grown to include research information,
research services, personal experience with problems, conference
notices, calls for papers, calls for research participants, legislative
issues, education and judicial issues, as well as other everyday
problems that beset busy families.
(Courtesy of Bruce Ritchie):
- The FASLink Web site maintains an extensive archive of
information serving more than 400,000 people annually.
- The FASLink site has more than 100,000 FASD-related documents.
It provides access to research, literature, PowerPoint presentations,
diagnostic tools, and educational and legal resources.
- FASLink produces educational CD's with information that
can be shared with family members, teachers and other professionals
involved with FASD issues.
- FASLink places at the top among Internet search engines
for the term "fetal alcohol," even though www.faslink.org
are the same FASLink address, splitting the ranking.
- FASLink provides information and support 24/7 and serves
parents (birth, foster and adoptive), caregivers, adults
with FASD, doctors, teachers, social workers, lawyers, students,
psychologists, law enforcement officials, judiciary members,
corrections professionals and government policy makers.
- FASLink shares 50 to 100 letters daily among the 300
to 500 members.
- FASLink membership is highest when schools are in session.
- FASLink depends on private financial support for its
existence. It does not receive donations or funding from
the alcohol industry.
FASLink has also spread internationally. From the original Canadians,
we have come to include members from the U.S., the United Kingdom,
the Netherlands, Germany, Poland, South Africa, Australia, New Zealand
Age-wise, we also span quite a few years of child rearing. Some
are birth parents. Many members are young parents who have just
adopted a child. Some are older parents. Some are foster parents
and some are raising nieces and nephews. Some are grandparents and
some have just taken in a neighbor's child and now have custody.
Some are just relatives who care. Some have one child and some have
quite a few. We have professionals in nearly every field associated
with children's health care and education. We have parents who have
barely finished high school and parents with PhDs. We have numerous
careers in art, design, writing, counseling, education, medicine,
business, administration, computer science, music, therapy and many
more. And we are even lucky enough to have some very articulate
adults with FASD who generously share their lives with us. The one
thing we have in common is that FASD is the great leveler: in this
we are all the same.
For the most part we talk about the problems we are having with
our children and "The System." "The System"
can range from getting a diagnosis, to getting help with the schools,
to finding the right drug therapy, to keeping a job, to life "after"
the parents. Continuity of care is one thing sorely lacking in FASD
treatment. It is our greatest problem.
In 1999, the Canadian Centre for Substance Abuse decided to relinquish
its patronage of the FASLink. When no agency stepped forward to
keep it going, Bruce Ritchie decided to take the responsibility
of its continuance upon himself until proper funding could be found.
It is Bruce who presently provides the hardware, software and Internet
connections that are the basis of the FASLink listserv.
Under Bruce's guidance, FASLink is minimally moderated. We do get
into hot topics at times, but as with all large families, we consider
this part of our overall relationship. If things get too uncomfortable,
it is recommended that the reader simply use the delete button until
things return to normal. And things do return to "normal".
The FASLink can get silly at times. One mother's problems with
her daily schedule led to two days of exchanging crock-pot recipes.
Typos, language errors and stories about the kids lead to good-natured
teasing and lots of "ROFL” (rolling on the floor laughing)
in the postings. Sometimes it is the much-needed laughter that makes
things tilt to normal again.
In ten years, we have also had pet problems, in-law problems, spouse
and special relationship problems, housekeeping problems and consumer
issues. We have celebrated births, marriages, IEPs that have been
accepted, new jobs, new relationships, milestone birthdays and therapies
that have worked. We have commiserated with each other over sprained
ankles, worn-out cars, the flu, messy offices and kitchen tables,
dealing with our teenagers, and even death. If it concerns living
with FASD, then we have probably talked about it and tried to deal
with it. We have given and taken advice, all the while knowing that
it is hard to walk a mile in another person's shoes.
It has been a useful ten years for the families and the children
they love. We hope to grow and learn, and perhaps through our combined
efforts, change the face of FASD with more knowledge, understanding
and compassion than that which existed before the FASLink.
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“Let me tell you the secret that has
led me to my goal.
My strength lies solely in my tenacity”
- Louis Pasteur
Bringing a research network to life
It was noon on October 22 and our flight was touching down in Yellowknife,
Northwest Territories in Canada. The pilot reported that the temperature
was 25 degrees Fahrenheit and the wind was gusting to 45 mph. Snow
was on the ground though the lakes were still open and most trees
still had their leaves. The eagles and the ravens were circling
the rocky outcroppings looking for lunch. The locals said the conditions
“weren’t bad.” But we had not come here for a
wilderness experience. Thirty western and northern Canadians were
meeting to talk about networking their experiences and data so that
their adolescent and young adult patients could benefit. This was
to be the real beginning of CanFAS NW.
Over the past few years, the profile of FASD has risen dramatically
in Canada. It has become a significant topic of general concern
and an active area for governmental policy discussions in health
care, social services, justice, and education. While much has been
accomplished, much remains to be done in determining, developing
and scientifically evaluating:
- appropriate screening mechanisms;
- diagnostic and assessment questions;
- the extent of the problem;
- targeted prevention programs;
- best practices for intervention and treatment with high risk
- best practices for intervention and treatment for individuals
with FASD themselves and support for their families.
The number of children and adults receiving a diagnosis within
FASD is on the increase. Approximately 1,150 evaluations will be
done this year in the region. In addition, the government of British
Columbia is developing plans to increase the capacity for FASD assessment
in B.C. alone to possibly double that number. Both published and
informal research indicates that a person with FASD will cost an
average of about $2.9 million CDN ($2 million USD 1)
over the course of his or her lifetime. Research that has been done
on costs is almost exclusively American and based on a system that
is different than the Canadian one, and does not include costs associated
with the criminal legal system, which can be expected to increase
this dollar amount in Canada.
There is little, if any, evidence-based research on the efficacy
of services provided by this money, or how this money might be better
spent to make a positive difference and improve the quality of life
of those with FASD and that of their families. Since FASD almost
always has profound implications for the functioning of affected
individuals, particularly as they become adults, there is, arguably,
no greater priority for research in Canada today.
WHAT TO DO
To begin to address these issues, the Canada Northwest FASD Partnership
was formed in 1998. It is currently an alliance of the four western
provincial and three northern territorial governments working together
towards the development and promotion of an interprovincial/territorial
approach to prevention, intervention, care and support of individuals
affected by FASD. Participating jurisdictions include Alberta, British
Columbia, Saskatchewan, Manitoba, Yukon Territory, Northwest Territories
and Nunavut. This is an enormous area, larger in square miles than
the United States, but with a population of only 9 million people,
residing in both sizable cities and scattered throughout vast rural
and remote regions.
In 2004, the partnership moved to create the Canada Northwest FASD
Research Network to begin the requisite tasks of interdisciplinary
research. The network is governed by a board of directors drawn
from the seven jurisdictions. Current board members include Lou
Winther as the first chairperson, Dr. Sterling Clarren as chief
executive officer/scientific director, Dr. Margaret Clarke as associate
director, and Jan Lutke as the program manager. The host agency
is the Centre for Community Child Health Research (CCCHR) within
the B.C. Research Institute for Children’s and Women’s
Health. CanFAS NW is accountable to the partnership with formal,
clearly defined, transparent governance, reporting and leadership
responsibilities. Its challenge is to build a common research agenda
in northwestern Canada.
CANFAS, NW is intended to be comprised of both the research community
and the broader FASD community and to span traditional disciplinary
boundaries. It also must face the unique challenges of research
in this complex arena. It will be essential that all stakeholders—families,
aboriginal peoples, advocates for women’s health, those who
work with affected adults, rural and remote communities and consultants
in other areas who may have critical knowledge—be authentically
engaged in the network and play an active role in its creation and
growth. Given the many individuals, agencies and organizations involved,
and the diversity of perspectives, this will be no small task.
This network will undertake the collaboration of a series of individuals
and organizations linked together at different points (hubs) so
that they become an interconnected entity working towards a specific
goal This network will undertake the collaboration of a series of
individuals and organizations linked together at different points
(hubs) so that they become an interconnected entity working towards
a specific goal—FASD research in identified areas. In the
last ten years in Canada, there has been a shift in the conduct
of basic and clinical research to a greater emphasis on interdisciplinary
sharing and networking approaches. The rapid spread of telemedicine,
videoconferencing and high-speed Internet access across Canada has
made this emerging trend a practical reality.
Regardless of where they are from or how they communicate, this
network will essentially be a collection of people from different
places who share a common focus and wish to work together to assist
change. While community-based researchers have been somewhat slower
to turn to this model, the information and resources now available
to them have grown substantially and are also beginning to change
the way in which they undertake research activity.
BUILDING A RESEARCH NETWORK AND RESEARCH ABILITIES
Success may well depend on bringing all parties together—and
keeping them together—in support of a common commitment towards
We will need to:
- assure the meaningful involvement of family and community stakeholders
in the process at all points;
- maintain the profile of FASD within governments as a priority
area and integrate it into policy and service planning;
- increase research capacity to identify and respond to emerging
issues in a coordinated manner;
- increase access to research opportunities for students;
- increase the number of clinicians and researchers actively involved
- increase research interest and initiatives through hospitals,
universities, government bodies, private funders, local, provincial
and national organizations and communities;
- develop targeted funding sources;
- facilitate active, accurate and effective communication between
the community and researchers;
- increase communication among clinical researchers and those
involved in practice;
- plan, develop, coordinate and implement a multi-focal, forward
thinking and long-term Canadian Northwest FASD research agenda
within a collaborative network in which all partners can take
an active role;
- provide for transfer of knowledge into clinical best practices
We have identified approximately 150 active FASD projects underway
in Canada NW, with work in every important aspect of inquiry—prevention,
diagnostics, mechanisms, intervention and treatment. Unfortunately,
most of these projects are small and under funded. By themselves,
they often lack the statistical power to prove their observations,
and they are often isolated from investigators in adjacent fields
who could build upon and advance their work. Critical questions
remain unanswered. In particular, there is virtually no evidence-based
research on what constitutes effective treatments and interventions
for individuals with FASD of all ages. This is of a particular urgency
in school and in adulthood. Governments require research-based evidence
to assist in the consideration, development and implementation of
policies that can effect meaningful change.
In the last two months we have held forums in Winnipeg, Calgary,
and in Yellowknife to bring together investigators and clinicians
and interventionists to discuss the benefits and barriers to networking
data within our first potential hubs of diagnostics, primary prevention,
and interventions during the difficult period of transition to adulthood.
In these intense small meetings, we have discussed how CanFAS NW
- link those groups doing research with one another, communities,
information providers, and with the consumers of their findings;
- provide a critical sized population for studies that would
otherwise not be able to produce generalized results due to lack
of sufficient numbers;
- provide for linkages across similar kinds of complimentary research
activity, evening out the lack of coordination and/or research
expertise in different jurisdictions;
- facilitate multi-site clinical studies applying common standards
and research questions;
- encourage non-traditional approaches and pooling of resources
to broaden the scope of research;
- create standardized data for analysis;
- encourage the development of good standards for evidence in
- allow practice standards and clinical protocols to be applied
evenly and widely;
- provide a meaningful set of answers to policy questions;
- provide for the rapid dissemination of evidence based practices;
make comprehensive longitudinal studies possible.
OFF WE GO
Western Canada has a strong group of qualified, committed and experienced
researchers in the field of FASD. It has experienced and trained
physicians who provide diagnosis in 16 settings. It has committed
programs and dedicated front-line staff working with women, individuals
with FASD and their families. It has parent-led family support organizations.
And it has strong government support. We have a solid foundation
from which we can build coordinated and focused research capacity
The weather never changed in Yellowknife while we were there, but
the meeting room was warm, filled with the energy of great people
and great ideas. We flew home confident that CanFAS NW would soar
with those northern birds. The forums had made it clear that Western
Canada was ready for action.
1. Cost of Fetal Alcohol
Spectrum Disorders; C. Lupton, L. Burd, R. Harwood; American Journal
of Medical Genetics Part C (Semin. Med Genet.) 127C; 2004